Coffee may lower risk of death, improves golf performance (2)

[This is the second part of the article published in the February 1, 2023 issue of the paper.]

Moderate con­sumption of unsweetened and sug­ar-sweetened coffee (only 1 teaspoon of sugar per serving) was associated with a lower risk of death. This was true for different types of coffee, including fresh brewed, instant, ground, and decaf­feinated coffee.

“Moderate consumption” equates to drinking about one to four cups of coffee per day.

In simplicity, the study found that higher consumption of coffee can help protect against heart disease, cancer, and overall risk of death. Now, the issue is what could account for coffee extending your life? From sound data gathered so far, coffee’s antioxidants and caffeine are largely responsible for its health-promoting effects. This is the deal according to Jillian, L(2022) :

“Coffee gives you high levels of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, which can help defend against free radical damage that contributes to disease formation and signs of ag­ing. Studies show that polyphenols and other compounds in coffee have antioxidant, anti-inflammato­ry, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties.

Caffeine, which is naturally found in coffee beans, also has several positive effects on health markers, especially for your brain and metabolism. Caffeine can help support a healthy metabolism and body weight by possibly burning more fat, blocking calorie absorp­tion, reducing appetite, boosting willpower and motivation, and giv­ing you more energy for physical activity”.


Coffee consumption has been linked to protecting the liver. For instance, Freedman et al.(2009) found that coffee improves circu­lation and can stimulate the liver. Also increased coffee consumption was associated with lower rates of liver disease progression in people with hepatitis C. The study noted that there was a 20 per cent reduc­tion in alcoholic liver syndrome for every cup of coffee a day partici­pants drank.

A previous study by Klatsky et al.(2006) held the view that coffee could also protect against cirrhosis, including alcoholic cirrhosis.

Fast forward, Wadhawan and Anand (2016) found that drinking more than two cups of coffee per day was linked to lower rates of liver scarring and liver cancer in people with liver disease.

Another study, by Heath et al.(2017) shows that the more coffee people drank, the lower their risk of death from chronic liver disease. Drinking one cup of coffee per day was tied to a 15% lower risk while drinking four cups per day was linked to a 71% lower risk.

Finally, a recent study, by Niezen et al.(2022) found that coffee consumption was linked to reduced liver stiffness, which is a measure healthcare professionals use to as­sess fibrosis, the formation of scar tissue in the liver.

Improves athletic Performance

Jeffrey Levy (2008) notes that Coffee is mostly used as an ergo­genic aid by athletes who want to improve performance and increase energy levels. An ergogenic aid is also called a performance enhancer.

Higgins et al.(2016) review of nine studies reported that drinking coffee before exercise enhanced people’s endurance and decreased their perceived exertion, compared with a control group.

In a recent study, Jyväkorpi et al. (2021) in 126 older adults found that drinking coffee was linked to enhanced physical performance and faster gait speed, even after the researchers adjusted for factors like age, belly fat, and physical activity levels.

In a previous large review study, Southward K, (2018) reported that moderate caffeine consumption may somewhat enhance power out­put and time-trial completion time.

In a previous study, Graham TE, (2001) reports that caffeine doesn’t improve maximal oxygen capacity directly but could help increase power and/or endurance for ath­letes. It has been shown to increase speed and power output in simu­lated race conditions and activities that last as little as 60 seconds or as long as two hours.

The caffeine in coffee, in particular, is often used as an ergogenic aid before and during prolonged exercise. This is one reason why many endurance athletes and fitness enthusiasts like to drink some coffee before hitting the gym or competing since it’s known to be a perfor­mance enhancer and contributor to higher concentration and stamina.

Finally, Hodgson et al.(2013) found that the power and athletic performance times were faster among adult men who drank caffeine drinks and coffee before exercising compared to placebo and decaf groups.

Coffee, depression, brain health

Lucas et al.(2014) study examined over 200,000 people and found that drinking coffee is associated with a lower risk of death by suicide.

Wang et al.(2015) review of seven studies, found that a daily cup of coffee drank is associ­ated with an 8% lower risk of depression.

Navarro et al.(2018) found that drinking at least four cups of coffee daily is linked to a lower risk of depression, compared with drinking just one cup per day.

Also, Hong et al. (2020) review of 13 studies, found that caffeine consumers had a significant­ly lower risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Apart from this, caffeine consumption also decreased the progression of Parkinson’s disease over time.

A previous study by Liu et al.(2016) of 11 observational studies in over 29,000 people also found that the more coffee people consumed, the lower their risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Two other studies, (Zhang et al. 2021; Chen et al, 2020), found that moderate coffee consump­tion could be associated with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline.

Finally, one study examined coffee as a potential natural treatment for Alzheimer’s as well as other neurological conditions. For instance, Arendash and Cao(2010), an animal study con­ducted by the Florida Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, mice given caffeine in their drinking water from young adulthood into older age demonstrated protection against memory impairment and lower brain levels of the abnormal protein (amyloid-beta or Abeta) thought to be central to Alzheimer’s development. “Aged,” cognitively impaired mice exhibited memory res­toration and lower brain Abeta levels following only one to two months of caffeine treatment.


Huxley et al.(2009) large review of 18 studies found that each cup of coffee consumed was linked to a 7 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In a subsequent study, Meng et al.(2013) found chlorogenic acid, one of the main antioxidants in coffee, to decrease the absorption of glucose from sugary or high-carbo­hydrate foods. This could slow the release of sugar into the bloodstream after a meal.

Another, Carlström and Larsson’s (2018) review of 30 studies found that each cup of coffee drank per day is associated with a 6% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

In a more recent study, Kolb et al. (2021) explained further how this is done:

“This is due to coffee’s ability to preserve the function of the beta cells in the pancreas, which are responsible for producing insulin to regulate blood sugar levels.”

Finally, Akash et al. (2014) study found that due to the rich nature of the antioxidants of coffee, it could affect insulin sensitivity, inflamma­tion, and metabolism —which are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes.


One old study, by Koot and Deurenberg (1995), also found that caffeine was able to boost metabo­lism by an average of seven per cent within three hours after consump­tion.

Sirotkin and Kolesárová (2021) study found that coffee could alter fat storage and support gut health, which are important in weight management. In a previous study, Lee et al.(2019) review of 12 studies concluded that higher coffee consumption may de­crease body fat, especially in men.

Women were not left out, Cacao et al.(2020) study also found that increased coffee intake was linked to decreased body fat in women.

In a previous study, Torquati et al.(2018) found that coffee drinkers who drank one to two cups of coffee daily were 17% more likely to meet recommended physical activity levels, compared with those who drank less than one cup per day.


In a recent study, Evans et al.(2022) found that Coffee con­tains caffeine, a central nervous system stimulant that is known for its ability to fight fatigue and increase energy levels.

Two studies explained how this is done, Alasmari F, 2020; Meeu­sen, 2006):

“Caffeine blocks the recep­tors of a neurotransmitter called adenosine, and this increases levels of other neurotransmitters in the brain that regulate the energy lev­els, including dopamine.”

In one small study, Smirmaul et al. (2017) agree that consuming caffeine increased time to exhaus­tion during a cycling exercise by 12% and drastically decreased subjective levels of fatigue in participants.

Mumford et al.(2016) had similar findings and found that consuming caffeine before and during a round of golf improved performance, increased subjective energy levels, and reduced feelings of fatigue.


Richelle et al.(2001)study found that an average cup of coffee could even contain more polyphenol antioxidants than cocoa, green tea, black tea, and herbal tea. Two of the key antioxidants that account for the majority of coffee benefits are chlorogenic acid and caffe­ic acid, both of which can help protect cells against damage and oxidative stress.

Wang et al. (2016) study also found that drinking coffee was associated with a lower risk of multiple kinds of cancer, includ­ing oral, pharyngeal, colon, liver, prostate, endometrial cancer, and

To be continued


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