Coffee may lower risk of death, improves golf performance (1)

 In Africa, many studies and research missions have found wild species of coffee growing off the coast of Côte d’Ivoire and in some areas of Sierra Leone.

On the global front, the top five coffee-producing countries: Brazil, Vietnam, Columbia, Indonesia, and Ethiopia, account for 75% of the world’s total coffee production.

The International Coffee Or­ganization, reports that a total of 169.6 million 60-kilogram bags of coffee were produced worldwide in 2020, with the top 10 biggest coffee-producing nations account­ing for 87% of the commodity’s market share. Coffee is the third most consumed beverage globally, after water and tea. The issue of whether coffee consumption is good for our health is the subject of this article and I examine this based on sound scientific evidence.

Coffee is loaded with caffeine, however, it is rich in antioxidants and contains a small amount of several micronutrients that your body needs as well. However, it’s also been linked to many different side effects, and health experts often advise that certain groups of people limit their intake to avoid adverse effects on health.

Coffee: nutrition

Arabica and robusta are the two most common types of coffee. Though they are limited in their content of vitamins and minerals, coffee is far better as compared to energy drinks, soda, and sweetened teas or juices. It contains no sugar or carbs and virtually no calories. According to the United State Department of Agriculture: One eight-ounce cup of regular coffee nutrition contains about;

• 2.4 calories

• 0.3 gram protein

• 0.2 milligrams riboflavin (11 percent DV)

• 0.6 milligram pantothenic acid (6 percent DV)

• 116 milligrams potassium (3 percent DV)

• 0.1 milligram manganese (3 percent DV)

• 7.1 milligrams magnesium (2 percent DV)

• 0.5 milligram niacin (2 percent DV)

The amount of caffeine in coffee depends on several factors such as the type of bean, manufacturer, and method used for making the coffee. For example, a standard cup from Starbucks has been found to contain more caffeine amount than the average medium-roast coffee at home.

According to the USDA, an average eight-ounce cup of brewed coffee from ground beans contains about 95 milligrams of caffeine. Meanwhile, the same size cup from Starbucks (which would be a “short”) has also been found to contain about 64 milligrams, and a cup of green tea has about 44 mil­ligrams. That means drinking a cup of coffee from Starbucks provides more than three times the amount of caffeine as a green tea made using one tea bag.

Coffee Types

The following are some of the types cultivated around the world, and each differs based on the type of bean used, the brand, and the method used to brew it:

• Cappuccino

• Espresso

• Nitro coffee

• Caffè Americano

• Irish coffee

• Latte

• Caffè mocha

• Keto coffee

• Turkish coffee

• Caffè macchiato

• Iced coffee

• Caffè Cubano

• Flat white



A review by Higdon and Frei B(2006) found that unfiltered coffee has high amounts of ca­festol and kahweol antioxidants, diterpene compounds found to lower cholesterol levels. The re­view further found that frequent coffee consumption in large epidemiological studies reduced mortality, both for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths.

A subsequent study (Bhatti et al. 2013) also found that coffee consumption is linked with a lower risk of heart failure and stroke. The study further found that coffee consumption reduced the risk for heart arrhythmia, even though several people feel it raises their heartbeat and makes them feel “jittery.”

In another review, Rodríguez-Ar­talejo, and López-García (2018) found that drinking three to five cups of coffee per day is linked to a 15% decreased risk of heart disease.

In a recent study, Stevens et al.(2021) tracked over 21,000 people also found that increased coffee intake was associated with a significantly decreased risk of heart failure

This notwithstanding, some studies have linked coffee con­sumption to raising blood pressure. Hence, two studies: Rodríguez-Ar­talejo and López-García, 2018; Lopez-Garcia et al. 2016), warned that people with unmanaged blood pressure may need to limit or mod­erate their caffeine intake.


In the first study, Poole et al. (2017) found that consuming one and four cups per day of coffee — irrespective of the type, or even lightly sugar-sweetened — may aid in protection against heart disease, liver disease, cancer and cognitive decline.

The second study on longevity and coffee consumption I found was by Kim et al.(2019). This study reviewed 40 studies and conclud­ed that drinking two to four cups of coffee daily was linked with a lower risk of death, irrespective of factors like age, weight status, and alcohol consumption.

The third study, by Czachor et al. (2020) was a test tube and found that coffee was able to extend the life span of yeast by protecting against free radicals and DNA damage. This is so refreshing!

The fourth study was by Tor­res-Collado et al.(2021) examined 1,567 people and found that drink­ing caffeinated coffee is associated with a lower risk of death after 12 and 18 years of follow-up. Also, drinking at least one cup of coffee per day was also associated with a lower risk of death from cancer.

Finally, Liu et al. (2022) focused on the association between coffee intake and reduced risk for death (all-cause mortality).

This was one of the first and only studies to distinguish between the effects of consumption of sug­ar-sweetened, artificially sweetened, and unsweetened coffee.

In this study, the researchers examined over 171,000 adults with a mean age of 55 to keep track of their coffee habits for nine years (2009 to 2018). The good news is that the participants had no car­diovascular disease or cancer at the beginning of the study.

I present the main findings from the study:

Compared with those who didn’t consume any coffee, consumers of various amounts of unsweetened coffee (between 1 and 4.5+ cups per day) had lower risks for all-cause mortality. Drinking unsweetened coffee regularly in any amount led to a 16% to 21% lower risk of dying during the seven-year-long follow-up period.

Adults who consumed sug­ar-sweetened coffee also experi­enced increased protection against death. Drinking lightly sweetened coffee was even more protective than drinking unsweetened coffee drinks. Adults who drank moderate amounts of coffee sweetened with sugar (1.5 to 3.5 cups per day) were 29% to 31% less likely to die during the follow-up period.

There wasn’t any clear indication that people who regularly consumed artificially sweetened coffee had any greater protection against mortality. (Overall, the pattern was inconsis­tent.)

 To be continued


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