Getachew Reda said the foreign elements are arming and financing opposition groups, but not necessarily with the formal backing of their governments.
Under the state of emergency troops will be deployed to quell protests.
It follows months of anti-government demonstrations by members of the country’s two largest ethnic groups.
Violence has intensified since the beginning of the month when at least 55 people were killed during a protest at an Oromo religious festival.
The state of emergency, which was announced on Sunday, will last for six months.
Mr Getachew told journalists in the Ethiopian, capital, Addis Ababa, that “all kinds of elements in the Egyptian political establishment” are involved but they were “not necessarily directly linked with the Egyptian government”, the AP news agency quotes him as saying.
The minister also pointed the finger at Eritrea, with which Ethiopia has a long-standing border dispute.
There has also been a long-running row with Egypt over Ethiopia’s decision to build a dam on the Nile, one of the river’s sources of which flows from Ethiopia to Egypt.
Mr Getachew earlier told the BBC that the state of emergency could involve banning protests.
“For the sake of maintaining public order the government believes that [the] temporary suspension of certain expression rights is warranted,” he explained.
“Armed violence that has been perpetrated by those organised gangs has been targeting civilians, has been targeting government installations, critical infrastructure.
“We have ample evidence that it is orchestrated by people who are in the business of not [just] dismantling the Ethiopian government but also dismantling the Ethiopian state in its entirety,” he said.
Mr Getachew also promised that the Ethiopian authorities would investigate claims that “off-grid” police officers had killed civilians.